# um... @JonathanWStokes topped last wk's nerdy music mania by translating the Fibonacci Sequence into a Scale. Wtf:

If the Fibonacci sequence (1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21…) were translated into music, how would it sound? The answer – surprisingly – is, pretty good.

Creating the Fibonacci ScaleTo play the Fibonacci sequence on a piano, one must assign a number value for every note of the keyboard; A=1, B=2, etc. As every octave has seven notes, every eighth note starts over at A. Therefore, 8=A, 9=B, 10=C, etc. Because there are only 7 possible notes, determining where a given Fibonacci number falls on a scale essentially deals with remainders:

Scale Note = Mod (F,7)The next, and trickiest step for playing the Fibonacci sequence is finding a piano keyboard that extends into infinity. Playing only the Fibonacci numbers on your infinite keyboard, one discovers the repeating sixteen note group A-A-B-C-E-A-F-G-F-F-E-D-B-F-A-G (repeat). Expressed numerically (Fibonacci sequence, Modulo 7), the sequence is 1-1-2-3-5-1-6-7-6-6-5-4-2-6-1-7, repeatedly infinitely.

It’s pretty nifty to find an infinite recursive sequence yielding a repeating finite group under modulo 7. But then, the universe is a nifty place.

Playing the Fibonacci sequence on a regular piano (for instance, in one octave of A major) is not unpleasant as the sixteen notes fit squarely into four measures. The sequence begins on the tonic note and ends on the leading tone, musically resolving when the sequence repeats.

It sounds like this:

Fibonacci Sequence MP3. Take a listen!

Proving the Finite GroupTo prove the Fibonacci sequence under modulo seven has a finite order of sixteen:

Mod (F_{n}, 7) = Mod (F_{n+16}, 7)With the first principal of mathematic induction, we sub n for 1, and then n + 1.

Mod (F_{1}, 7) = Mod (F_{1+16}, 7)Noting that the 17th Fibonacci number is 1597, the proof is valid for the integer 1:

Mod (1,7) = Mod (1597,7)

or

1 = 1And solving for n+1:

Mod (F_{n+1}, 7) = Mod (F_{(n+1)+16}, 7)

Mod (2, 7) = Mod (2584, 7)

or

1 = 1

Fibonacci FugueWithout further ado, here is a fugue I whipped up using the 16 note Fibonacci Scale as the main theme:

Fibonacci Fugue MP3.

Order of Group for Non-Western ScalesWhat does the Fibonacci sequence sound like if played on non-Western scales? Repeating sequences again occur on scales of any length (excepting base 10-divisible scales which yield no identity). For instance, playing the Fibonacci sequence on a pentatonic scale yields the repeating pattern: A-A-B-C-E-C-C-A-D-E-D-D-C-B-E-B-B-D-A-E. Playing in a nine note scale also yields a twenty note repeating pattern: A-A-B-C-E-H-D-C-G-A-H-I-H-H-G-F-D-A-E-F-B-H-A-I.

Examining the modulo sequences, distinct patterns emerge. The longer the modulo sequence, the more it approaches the Fibonacci sequence. For instance, all of the sequences begin with 1-1-2-3-5, or A-A-B-C-E. Furthermore, the sequences all end with the highest possible note in the scale. Melodically, this means that every sequence begins on the tonic and ends on a leading tone, which is harmonically pleasing. The second to last note is always A. The third to last is always the second highest note in the scale. The fourth to last note is always B, etc. As larger sequences are generated, greater patterns emerge (see chart above). Although it must be a mathematical coincidence, these patterns create harmonic consistencies that are not half-bad to listen to.

Perhaps most bizarrely, these Fibonacci scales all appear to obey the laws of musical phrasing. Simply stated, the peak of a musical phrase is very often the highest note of a musical phrase, and tends to occur around 2/3rds (or maybe .618…) through the length of the phrase. Furthermore, if a musical phrase begins and ends in the tonic key, the peak of the phrase will often be in the dominant key. This pattern is bizarrely exhibited in the Fibonacci scales (chart above), which all contain a middle sequence of A-M-N-M-M-L-K, where N is the highest note in the scale, and M is the second highest, L is the third highest, and K is the fourth highest.

Square Scales and Cube ScalesRecurring sequences do not appear to be endemic to the Fibonacci sequence. Playing the squares (1,4,9, etc) on the infinite piano yields a recurring order of seven {A,D,B,B,D,A,G}. Playing the cubes (1,8,27) on the infinite piano yields a different recurring group order of seven {A-A-F-A-F-F-G}. Perhaps these math-based melodies will one day provide inspiration for modern composers.